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In view of the singleness of the tree species, the decline in biological diversity, and the serious waste of forest land productivity in the Saihanba plantations of Hebei Province, the Forest Farm conducted the targeted tending of the artificial Larix principis-rupprechtii pure forest adopting the close-to-nature management selective cutting mode. The tender operation to target forest was carried out once every 5 years, so that the target tree density was finally maintained at about 450 plants /ha after 3-5 times. Then the density of the target trees was gradually reduced to 225-300 plants / ha. Under the forest canopy, the shade-tolerant species, spruce, was planted, while Pinus sylvestris was planted in the edge of the forest; the management of forest regeneration layer was strengthened by implementing timely cutting, irrigating and weeding operations, so as to promote the growth of new seedlings. The uneven-aged stratified mixed stand of Larix principis-rupprechtii, spruce and Pinus sylvestris has effectively enhanced the quality of the stand and improved the function of ecological service. There were large diameter tree species of Larix principis-rupprechtii in the upper layer, an even distribution of spruce, Pinus sylvestris and other tree species in the middle, and the dense vegetation in the lower. The targeted DBH of Larix principis-rupprechtii, spruce and Pinus sylvestris were 40+cm, 55+cm, and 50+cm, respectively. (Hebei Provincial Department of Forestry)

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Xining of Qinghai Province explored an afforestation model for the plateau and drought areas in greening the North and South Mountains. With the establishment and implementation of the “green-based principle, irrigation-based principle, the principle of acting according to local conditions, and the principle of matching species with the site”, and commitment to the “centralized management of mountains, ravines and contiguous areas”, they first planted Hippophae rhamnoides Linn, Tamarix ramosissima, Caragana korshinskii and other shrubs, then more than 10 local tree species, including Tamarix chinensis, Prunus armeniaca, Qinghai spruce, Sabina przewalskii, and Pinus tabuliformis Carrière, to form a plant community featuring a combination of trees, shrubs and weeds, relatively abundant in diversity and stability in structure. As of 2014, the area of forest land has increased from 980 ha in 1989 to 10,880 ha , and with the additional 3,933 ha of shrubbery land, the forest coverage rate has increased from 5.3% to 79%. Thus a mountain forest ecosystem with the majority of the local needle-leaved tree species, combination of trees, shrubs and weeds, and mixture of broadleaf and conifer forests has been initially built up. (Qinghai Provincial Department of Forestry)

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Located in Pingxiang, Guangxi Province and with an area of 19,000 ha , the Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, boasts a forest area of 16,000 ha and a total forest volume of 1.45 million cubic meters. At present, the Center has concluded 6 afforestation models such as “uneven aged mixed broadleaf-conifer forests”, and built 8 demonstration models of forestry such as “Veneer-oriented Forests of Tropical Areas and Southern Subtropical Areas”. All these makes the Center a local superior broad-leaved plantation demonstration zone in Southern China that boasts the most tree species, the largest scale and the most abundant patterns. A large number of scientific research achievements, such as “silviculture technologies for tropical excellent broad-leaved forests” and “afforestation technologies for rock hill and lava”, have been widely applied in Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Fujian, Yunnan, Guizhou and other regions, which have brought about good ecological, social and economic benefits.

Many scientific research personnel from the United States, Canada, Germany, Laos and Netherlands have been attracted to the Center, to visit the demonstration forest for targeted breeding of large diameter timber of Castanopsis hystrix, the close-to-nature transformation experimentation on monoculture plantation of Chinese fir and Pinus massoniana, and the uneven aged mixed forest of Castanopsis hystrix, Betula alnoides, etc. (Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry)

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The evergreen trees, Chinese fir and Pinus massoniana, are mainly distributed in subtropical regions of China. Aiming at the declining productivity of woodlands, poor stability of forest community, vulnerability to diseases and pests, and other problems engendered by continuous planting of artificial Chinese fir and Pinus massoniana monoculture plantation, the Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry in Guangxi adopted the following technologies to transform it.

Local rare broad-leaved trees were planted under the canopy of Chinese fir and Pinus massoniana, and the best combination methods were tested and demonstrated. The dynamic regulation technology of transmissivity of upper forest trees was adopted and the tending measures for forests with the respective thinning intensities of 30%, 45% and 60% were implemented. The supporting management technology for the efficient multi-functional close-to-nature forests was adopted for the conversion of inefficient Chinese fir and Pinus massoniana monoculture plantation to the local broad-leaved forest.

The close-to-nature transformation of the Chinese fir and Pinus massoniana monoculture plantation was effective for breeding Pinus massoniana and Chinese fir, as it could greatly shorten the cultivation cycle of large-diameter trees, thus quickly form the uneven aged mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest, obviously increase the stand biodiversity, and further enhance the forest ecological stability, so that the sustainable management ability of forest could be strengthened. (Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry)

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The Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry has started breeding Castanopsis hystrix plantation since 1970s. The afforestation mainly focused on pure forests at the early stage, which were tended according to the traditional way, resulting in some problems in the management. With continuous exploration and practice, the general scientific and technical personnel of the Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry actively studied and introduced the forest management theory and its technical system on close-to-nature forest management from Germany, and transformed the Castanopsis hystrix monoculture plantation or the even aged mixed forest into the uneven-aged stratified mixed forest constituted mainly by Castanopsis hystrix and many other tree species, to breed the high quality large diameter timber oriented forest of Castanopsis hystrix and realize the development goal of sustainable close-to-nature management.

The Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry proposes 3 kinds of management technology models for cultivating the large diameter timber Castanopsis hystrix close-to-nature forest, targeting three types of stand: Castanopsis hystrix plantation, Pinus massoniana plantationand the slash reafforestation. These models integrate and innovate the successful experiences of research on Castanopsis hystrix artificial forest breeding technologies in China and the research and practices on large diameter Castanopsis hystrix breeding technologies of the Center, and they are advanced in technology, feasible in economy and highly operable in production. (Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry)

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