Despite the native broad-leaved tree species are rich in Guangxi, there still exists the singleness of tree species, big differences in stand growth and other problems. There are 8 broad-leaved tree species planted in the demonstration forest, including Michelia macclurei, Castanopsis hystrix, Betula alnoides, Mytilaria laosensis, Manglietia glauca, Michelia hedyosperma, Tsoongiodendron odorum and Paramichelia baillonii, and 2 coniferous tree species, including Pinus massoniana and Chinese fir. Through 6 mixed plantation modes, including the mixture of the coniferous and broad-leaved, and the mixture of broad-leaved and broad-leaved, and by planting in rows, the Center breeds the large-diameter timber of the rare broad-leaved trees with a diameter over 50cm, the medium and large diameter timber of Pinus massoniana and the small and medium diameter timber of Chinese fir with a diameter ranging 15 ~ 20cm , adopting the single plant management working system for the target trees.

Multi-species mixed plantation is conducive to the maintenance and upgrading of site productivity, promotes the formation of good stem form, thus ultimately enhances the overall economic value of the stand and achieves sustainable management using natural regeneration. At last, a large area of close-to-nature forests consisting of several precious species comes into being by the transmission of seeds between different modes and the natural regeneration of the seedlings under forest. (Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry)


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Betula alnoides is a tree species of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae. It is heliophilous, drought tolerant, and has strong adaptability to barren soil. With the fast-growing and high-yielding features, it is regarded as the pioneer species for afforestation in the barren hills. Due to the sparse branches and leaves and the seasonal defoliation, the Betula alnoides pure forest is overgrown with the heliophilous shrubs and weeds, which greatly influences the growth of the trees, eventually resulting in poor growth of the forest. Castanopsis hystrix is a tall and straight species of evergreen broad-leaved tree with thick and dense branches and leaves. The species has a wider ecological niche and is shade tolerant at juvenile stage.

By planting Castanopsis hystrix under the canopy of the young Betula alnoides, we can make full use of the light resources and nutrient space of the forest land to create an artificial uneven aged broad-leaved mixed forest with high yield and good stability, so that the Betula alnoides pure forest can be refrained from poor growth, low quality and yield. 

The scientific and technical personnel of Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry chose to plant the tree species with strong complementarity based on their differences in ecological niche, to create the uneven aged mixed forest with scientific structure and high productivity, which provided technical demonstration for tending the artificial forest of local rare broad-leaved large-diameter timber. (Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry)


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The Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry has started breeding Castanopsis hystrix plantation since 1970s. The afforestation mainly focused on pure forests at the early stage, which were tended according to the traditional way, resulting in some problems in the management. With continuous exploration and practice, the general scientific and technical personnel of the Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry actively studied and introduced the forest management theory and its technical system on close-to-nature forest management from Germany, and transformed the Castanopsis hystrix monoculture plantation or the even aged mixed forest into the uneven-aged stratified mixed forest constituted mainly by Castanopsis hystrix and many other tree species, to breed the high quality large diameter timber oriented forest of Castanopsis hystrix and realize the development goal of sustainable close-to-nature management.

The Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry proposes 3 kinds of management technology models for cultivating the large diameter timber Castanopsis hystrix close-to-nature forest, targeting three types of stand: Castanopsis hystrix plantation, Pinus massoniana plantationand the slash reafforestation. These models integrate and innovate the successful experiences of research on Castanopsis hystrix artificial forest breeding technologies in China and the research and practices on large diameter Castanopsis hystrix breeding technologies of the Center, and they are advanced in technology, feasible in economy and highly operable in production. (Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry)


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The evergreen trees, Chinese fir and Pinus massoniana, are mainly distributed in subtropical regions of China. Aiming at the declining productivity of woodlands, poor stability of forest community, vulnerability to diseases and pests, and other problems engendered by continuous planting of artificial Chinese fir and Pinus massoniana monoculture plantation, the Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry in Guangxi adopted the following technologies to transform it.

Local rare broad-leaved trees were planted under the canopy of Chinese fir and Pinus massoniana, and the best combination methods were tested and demonstrated. The dynamic regulation technology of transmissivity of upper forest trees was adopted and the tending measures for forests with the respective thinning intensities of 30%, 45% and 60% were implemented. The supporting management technology for the efficient multi-functional close-to-nature forests was adopted for the conversion of inefficient Chinese fir and Pinus massoniana monoculture plantation to the local broad-leaved forest.

The close-to-nature transformation of the Chinese fir and Pinus massoniana monoculture plantation was effective for breeding Pinus massoniana and Chinese fir, as it could greatly shorten the cultivation cycle of large-diameter trees, thus quickly form the uneven aged mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest, obviously increase the stand biodiversity, and further enhance the forest ecological stability, so that the sustainable management ability of forest could be strengthened. (Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry)


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Located in Pingxiang, Guangxi Province and with an area of 19,000 ha , the Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, boasts a forest area of 16,000 ha and a total forest volume of 1.45 million cubic meters. At present, the Center has concluded 6 afforestation models such as “uneven aged mixed broadleaf-conifer forests”, and built 8 demonstration models of forestry such as “Veneer-oriented Forests of Tropical Areas and Southern Subtropical Areas”. All these makes the Center a local superior broad-leaved plantation demonstration zone in Southern China that boasts the most tree species, the largest scale and the most abundant patterns. A large number of scientific research achievements, such as “silviculture technologies for tropical excellent broad-leaved forests” and “afforestation technologies for rock hill and lava”, have been widely applied in Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Fujian, Yunnan, Guizhou and other regions, which have brought about good ecological, social and economic benefits.

Many scientific research personnel from the United States, Canada, Germany, Laos and Netherlands have been attracted to the Center, to visit the demonstration forest for targeted breeding of large diameter timber of Castanopsis hystrix, the close-to-nature transformation experimentation on monoculture plantation of Chinese fir and Pinus massoniana, and the uneven aged mixed forest of Castanopsis hystrix, Betula alnoides, etc. (Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry)


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