Since the reform and open-up, the bamboo production in China has developed rapidly, a new industry from resource development to processing and utilization of bamboo was emerged in many counties and municipalities, and remarkable ecological, economic and social benefits have been achieved. To further mobilize enthusiasm of the masses in developing bamboo industry, to enhance the social impact of bamboo development and accelerate the exploitation and construction of bamboo resources in China, the Ministry of Forestry made a decision on 27 Feb 1996 to name the ten counties (municipalities) as “the Home of bamboo in China”, and they were Jianou municipality and Shunchang county of Fujian province, Anji and Linan counties of Zhejiang province, Yifeng and Chongyi counties of Jiangxi province, Guangning county of Guangdong province, Tiaojiang county of Hunan province, Guangde county of Anhui province, Chishui city of Guizhou province.
1) Anji county of Zhejiang province
Anji County has more than 57,000 ha of bamboo forests in total, accounting for 51.27% of the forested lands. The county produces 0.45 million tons of bamboo timber and 0.03 million tons of bamboo shoots. Among them the area of Moso bamboo was 45,000 ha, with a total standing volume of 114.6 million stocks, a stocking density of 2,574 individuals per ha and an average diameter at breast height of 8.03 cm. The annual harvesting is 18 million individuals, equivalent to 300,000 tons approximately. The average annual production of bamboo timber is about 6,750 kg per ha. There are about 160,000 ha of high yielding bamboo forests with an annual overproduction of more than 7,500 kg per ha, accounting for approximately 35% of the total area if Moso bamboo forests.
The county has a total of 46 bamboo species (including varieties and forms), respectively belonging to t7 genera, namely Phyllostachys, Pleioblastus, Sinobambusa, Indocalamus, Chimonobambusa and Brachystachyum.
2) Lin’an municipality of Zhejiang province
Lin’an municipality lies in Tianmu Mountains in northwestern Zhejiang Province, where bamboo resources are extremely abundant due to the specific natural conditions and geographical environment of the county. The total land area of the county was 313,000 ha, with 23,900 ha of forested land and 47,000 ha of bamboo forests. The forest coverage is 71.3%. There are of 11 genera, 46 species, 5 varieties and 12 forms of bamboo in the country. It is the central distribution region of monopodial bamboos and natural high-yielding region in China and one of the 70 counties of commercial Moso bamboo in the whole country. Among the bamboo forests, 18,000 ha are Moso bamboo, with a total volume of 40.3947 million individuals and an average stocking density of 2,250 per ha. The annual harvesting is 5.4 million individuals; there are 15,000 ha of bamboo forests for shoot production, mainly comprised of Phyllostachys nuda, Phyllostachys tianmuensis, green and red bamboos, with a stocking density of 18,000 bamboos per ha, and the dried shoots of Tianmu bamboo produced in 1995 were of 1,579 tons and the output value was RMB 25.2 million; there are 10,000 ha bamboos as for edible vegetables, stoking density of 9,000 individuals per ha, and mainly consisting of Phyllostachys praecox and Phyllostachys prominens, and the fresh shoots produced in 1995 were of 46,000 tons, with an output value of RMB 150 million; there are 4,000 ha bamboos for craft making, they are mainly Pleioblastus amatus, Indocalamus tessellatus, Phyllostachys nidulara, and broom bamboo, In addition, there are plenty of undergrowth bamboos, mixed bamboo forests and alpine bamboo bushes.
3) Jian’ou municipality of Fujian province
Jian’ou municipality is located in southeast Wuyi Mountains and the northwestern slope of Jiufeng Mountains. The municipality covers an area of 422,000 ha and has forested lands of 318,000 ha, of which bamboo forests are of 69,000 ha, accounting for 23% of the forested lands. Among the bamboo forests, Moso bamboo is of 68,600 ha, accounting for 1/4 of the total Moso bamboo forests in China and 1/10 of the total in Fujian province, ranking among the top of the counties (municipalities) in China. The bamboo forests in the county have a total of 187 million standing bamboos and 2,697 per ha on average. The area of Moso bamboo forests and the total number of individuals both rank the first among others in the province and the country. The year of 1995 was the year when bamboo industry economy in the municipality created brilliancy again. It produced 9.6 million bamboos yearly (equivalent to 192,000 tons) and fresh bamboos of 151,200 tons, and exported canned bamboo shoots of 15,000 tons. The total production value of bamboo industry was RMB 495 million, of which the processing production value was RMB 170 million. The output value per ha of bamboo forests was RMB 7,576, creating an annual income of RMB 232 million, including RMB 81.88 million of taxes and RMB 150.38 million of profits, and creating an income of foreign currency of RMB 51.57 million from export. The total product value, processing value and average per ha output value of forestry are among the tops in the country and rank the first in Fujian province. The bamboo industry economy has become one of the primary pillar industries of the municipal economy and the “four enriching project”, making the country, the city, departments and people wealthy.
4) Shunchang county of Fujian province
Shunchang County lies in northwest Fujian province, and it is a key forestry county and a base of Moso bamboos. The county has 3 state-owned forest farms and 8 state-run tending farms with a total land area of 198,000 ha, of which the forestry land is of 162,000 ha, accounting for 81.8%. The forested area is of 147,000 ha, of which Moso bamboo forests cover an area of 32,000 ha, accounting for 21.8% of the forested land. Forestry is the pillar industry of the county, and bamboo forests are one of the biggest advantageous resources. In 1995, the annual production value of bamboo shoots and bamboos accounted for 34.3% of the total agricultural output value of the whole county. The export value of bamboo shoot and bamboo products accounted for 61.6% of the county’s total, and the per capital income of the farmers from bamboo management accounted for 34.2% of the annual pure income, making the bamboo industry the enriching industry of the rural areas in the whole county.
5) Yifeng county of Jiangxi province
Yifeng county is located at the southern foot of Jiuling Mountains in northwest Jiangxi and always called “the county of Moso bamboos”. The county has forestry lands of 127,000 ha, of which forested land is of 104,000 ha. The agricultural population have 0.26 ha of Moso bamboo per capita on average, which is double of the per capital arable land. The total volume of bamboos of the county is 61.1098 million individuals, the first one in the province and among the tops in the country. Since 1993, the number of Moso bamboos has reached 36.3874 in two years through forbidding shoots harvesting for restoration, allowing an annual increase of 372 individuals per ha. By 1995, the total volume of bamboos in the county has reached 97.4972 million in number with a stocking density of 2,030 standing bamboos per ha. The county has set up 196 high-yielding Moso bamboo bases, with an area of 19,000 ha, accounting for 40.3% of the total bamboo forests. Among the 16 villages and towns, there are 12 ones with over one million standing bamboos and two with over 10 million standing bamboos.
6) Chongyi county of Jiangxi province
Bamboo industry is the important component of forestry in Chongyi, and the principle pillar industry of the county economy, contributing 1/3 to the county economy. The county now has bamboo forests of 39,000 ha, covering 24.4% of the forested land, of which the Moso bamboos put into production are of 28,000 ha and the transformed and restored are of 6,000 ha. Chongyi has rich bamboo resources, and there are 7 genera and 41 species identified, including Moso bamboo, Indocalamus tessellatus, Fargesia spathacea, Pleioblastus amarus, Membranceus munro, square bamboo and solid bamboo. In 1994, the total volume of standing Moso bamboo in the county was 62.58 million in number, at a stocking density of 2,205 per ha. The county planned to produce 5 million commercial Moso bamboos in 1995. Because of the market effects, it in fact yielded 3.65 million commercial Moso bamboos, fresh bamboo shoots of 1,750 kg/ha, and the total production value of bamboo industry achieved RMB 216 million, creating an income of RMB 19.8 million, accounting for 32.8% of the fiscal revenues of the whole county. The net income per capita of the forest growers in the region gained from growing bamboo was up to RMB 936, accounting for 62.3% of the per capital net income. The majority of collective income in the rural areas also came from the bamboo industry.
7) Taojiang county of Hunan province
It lies in the north-central Hunan and the middle and lower reaches of Zijiang River. Its geographical and climatic conditions are extremely beneficial for the growth of Phyllostachys pubescens It has long been known as “County of Phyllostachys pubescens”. According to the historical record, Phyllostachys pubescens was grown in the area 2000 years ago. Later, the bamboo industry developed into an abundant resource and a fundamental component of industry and commerce. It is the county with the third highest bamboo production in the whole country, covering an area of 41,000 ha. The total volume is up to 84.392 million in number, with an expending rate of 1.5%. The annual yield is of 20 million in number and the total output value amounts to RMB 250 million, accounting for 75% of the forestry revenues. The processing output value in 1995 was RMB 520 million. It has the biggest area of bamboo forest in Hunan. The bamboo forests here are characterized by big areas and concentration and connection with each other. There are 21 villages and towns in the county with bamboo blocks of more than 667 ha, five blocks of which are over 3,300 ha, making it the ideal place for development of bamboo industry. The total area of Taojiang County is 206,300 ha. It has 24 villages (towns), 776 villages and 789,000 people. The forestry land covers an area of 115,000 ha, accounting for 56% of the total. The area of bamboo forests is 41,000 ha, accounting for 19.9% of the total land and 35.8% of the forestry land. There are high-yielding bamboo forests of 13,000 ha, accounting for 30.6% of the total are of bamboo forests. There are 29 bamboo species or varieties in the country. All these bamboo resources become the powerful pillars of natural resources and the economy of Taojiang County, and the main resources for enriching the people and empowering the county.
8) Guangning County of Guangdong province
Guangning County in Guangdong has a high production of Bambusa textilis, it is the central production area of Bambusa textilis in China, and has long been known as the home of bamboos. “Zhengjiang Bamboo Split”, which ever enjoyed popularity at home and abroad in the history, is produced just in Guangning. The area of bamboo forests in the county is 63,000 ha, accounting for 36.6% of the total forested lands. The Bambusa textilis covers an area of 53,000 ha, accounting for 84.4% of the total bamboo forests. The alluvial flat lands and low-hilly mountains along Suijiang River are the central production areas of Bambusa textilis, and the trunks of bamboos are straight and green and luxuriat, forming grandiose bamboo corridors. According to a survey, the high-yielding bamboo forests with an annual output of over 3,750 kg per ha cover an area of 23,000 ha, accounting for 36% of the total area of bamboo forests. There are fewer scattered bamboos in the county, among which Moso bamboos are only of more than 200 ha. The whole county produces bamboo timber of 227,000 tons annually.
9) Guangde County of Anhui province
Guangde County, lying in the southeast of Anhui province, is located at the border of 8 counties of 3 provinces of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Anhui, full of mountains covered by a vast area of bamboos that looks like a bamboo sea, and always known as “the Home of Moso bamboos”. There are forested lands of 100,000 ha, with forest coverage of 48% and volume of 1.23 million m3. The economy of forestry industries plays an important role in the county. Bamboo forests are the principle component part of its forest resources. The county has bamboo forests of 34,000 ha (of which the area of Moso bamboo is 27,000 ha, with a stocking volume of 80 million individuals and an annual cutting of 7 million individuals), accounting for 35% of the total area of forested lands in the whole county. It ranks the first in Anhui province and is also one of the national key bamboo-producing counties. Especially the Moso bamboos which cover an area of 27,000 ha, they are the important living sources of hundreds of thousands of people. The county has 28 rural townships and towns, all of which have bamboo forests, and 188 bamboo-producing administrative villages, accounting for 67% of the total number of administrative villages in the county. The economy of bamboo industry grows rapidly and has become one of the major pillar industries in the county, with an annual output value of RMB 200 million, of which the output value of processing industry reaches RMB 130 million and the export value is USD 3 million.
10) Chishui city of Guizhou province
Chishui city is the old revolutionary base area where the red army “Crossed Chishui River for 4 times” during the civil war. It is now a national-level tourist resort where locates the Chishui Bamboo Sea National Forest Park and Jinsha National Natural Reserve of Cyathea. It is the key production area of Moso bamboos in the country and the leading producing county of Moso bamboos in Guizhou. The area of Moso bamboo forests in the county accounts for more than 80% of the provincial total. The county is also the key forestry county of the province. Chishui city now has bamboo forests of 29,000 ha, accounting for 29.6% of the total forested lands in the whole city, of which Moso bamboo forests are of 18,000 ha, accounting for 19% of the forested lands and 62.5% of the bamboo forests in the city. There are high-yielding bamboo forests of 11,000 ha, accounting for 38% of the total bamboo forests and 61% of Moso bamboo forests. The Moso bamboo of Chishui is famous at home and abroad for its large diameter, long nodes, thick wall, small tapery and superior properties. There are now 2,280 standing bamboos per ha on average. Currently, Chishui has 31 bamboo species, 3 of which are new ones. Main species/varieties are Phyllostachys pubescen, Neosinocalamus affinis, Oligostachyum hupehense, Phyllostachys heteroclada, Phyllostachys bambusoides, Jinfoshan and Hejiang Chimonobambusa qundrangularis, etc.