Xining of Qinghai Province explored an afforestation model for the plateau and drought areas in greening the North and South Mountains. With the establishment and implementation of the “green-based principle, irrigation-based principle, the principle of acting according to local conditions, and the principle of matching species with the site”, and commitment to the “centralized management of mountains, ravines and contiguous areas”, they first planted Hippophae rhamnoides Linn, Tamarix ramosissima, Caragana korshinskii and other shrubs, then more than 10 local tree species, including Tamarix chinensis, Prunus armeniaca, Qinghai spruce, Sabina przewalskii, and Pinus tabuliformis Carrière, to form a plant community featuring a combination of trees, shrubs and weeds, relatively abundant in diversity and stability in structure. As of 2014, the area of forest land has increased from 980 ha in 1989 to 10,880 ha , and with the additional 3,933 ha of shrubbery land, the forest coverage rate has increased from 5.3% to 79%. Thus a mountain forest ecosystem with the majority of the local needle-leaved tree species, combination of trees, shrubs and weeds, and mixture of broadleaf and conifer forests has been initially built up. (Qinghai Provincial Department of Forestry)

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Mixed broadleaf-conifer forest

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Mixed tree and shrub forest

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The afforestation of the North and South Mountains